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العودة   ۩ أكاديمية الفينيق ۩ > ⚑ ⚐ هنـا الأعـلامُ والظّفَـرُ ⚑ ⚐ > 🌿 الأوديســــــــــا ⋘

🌿 الأوديســــــــــا ⋘ لحركة الترجمة والدراسات المقارنة

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قديم 13-12-2018, 02:56 AM رقم المشاركة : 1
معلومات العضو
غادة قويدر
عضو أكاديمية الفينيق
عضو تجمع أدباء الرسالة
تحمل وسام الاكاديمية للابداع الادبي
رابطة الفينيق/ ارام

الصورة الرمزية غادة قويدر

افتراضي by G Islam 's contribution in the enlightenment of Europe

Islam 's contribution in the enlightenment of Europe
As a matter of fact, towards the end of the sixth century A.D. Islam - the last Heavenly Message to all mankind-appeared in Arabia .It was a great social political revolution planting new concepts and civilization based on maintaining knowledge, peace, love ,dignity , sincerity , cooperation , respectability and freedom among all people as there is no difference between Arab and Non-Arab except in righteousness . It preserves the rights and dignity of man whoever ,whatever and wherever man is provoking him to seek knowledge. seeking knowledge is a must in Islam because the first words passed to Muhammad from Allah by Gabriel " in Surratt Al"Alaq" Read In The Name of your Lord" .This is a direct order from Allah
ordering man to read , to learn and know so as a response to this order Muslims began to search learn and get knowledge until there were great scholars and scientists in all aspects of life . They were the best and first scientist in medicine ,astronomy , chemistry , philosophy , industry , art and architecture introducing their inventions and civilization to all humanity .They opened the door for the enlightenment period and paved the way to the industrial revolution in Europ .
Ar Razi , Muhammad bin Abi Bakr ar Razi 864 A.D. was one of the greatest outstanding scholars in medicine maths astronomy ,philosophy , chemistry logic and sharai. He wrote more than two hundred books and letters in medicine which he translated many of them into Latin Those letters were the medical reference to Europe for about four hundred years till the sevnttenth century . He had his own hospital which he himself directed . Also, he invented the medical strings for surgeries . Ar Razi was as all other Muslim scientists and scholars Messengers enjoying the utmost type of freedom to move from the northern of Africa till Indian Islands and China.
Another philosophical medical scholar was Abu Ali bin al Hussein bin Abdullah bin al Hasan bin Ali bin Seena who was born in 980 – 1037 . He was called Al Sheikh Al Raees He wrote about two hundred ooks in Medicine , philosophy , maths and other fields .He followed the course of Abiqrat and Galinous .His medical book was " the Law of Medicine "which was the guide of medicine in Europe till the mid of the seventeenth century to be tought in European universities . He was the first philosopher who defined The inflection of al Sahaya and the first who described the reasons of al Yaraqan and the phinomenons of the stones in AL Mathana .
Ibn Zuhr al Andalusi who inherited medicine and other sciences from his father and grandfather had great influence .This also throws light at a very delicate period which contributed in the European civilization and enlightenment .Ibn Zuhr al Andalusi was born in 465 H , he Gained great reputation in the field of science and philosophy especially in depending in his work on experience as well as observation . He had composed many books in this field , these books were translated into Latin and they contributed in the progress of medicine in the west as well in the east for example, his book " al Tayseer fi al Mudaawat wa Tadbeer " was the best to be written about medicine as it was as an encyclopedia in the science of Medical Manufactoring . Other important books of his among tens are the book of " foods " and " al Jameu in Medicines and al Ma'jounat "So ,Ibn Zur was an outstanding figure whose medical course was distinguished in certain qualities

which I can sum them up as follows :
a . He depended on direct experiment and observation
b. He advised his students not to take anything throughout reading unless
they observe and directly try .
c .He was the first to treat the cases of …………..that were in the Phyrenx
d . The first scholar who described Khurraj al heizoum and the inflection of
Tamour .
e. Also , he was the first who spoke about cutting the chest in a surgery
f . He w hose favor in using " al Mulleinat " for the first time.
The Muslim scholars were the first in the world who worked in a group as it was the case of Ibn Zuhr and Ibn Rushd in Andalusia. They worked in group and there were cooperation between them and bin Zuhr made use of the Book of Bin Rushd which was named " al Kulliyat " . This was because Islam honoured knowledge and science and rewarded those who were significant and brilliant at the time when Europe was still governed by the church who even struggled against science and scientists . They sentenced Galilo to death because he claimed that earth is a sphere and it turns around itself .
The unity in thought and ideology of the Islamic religion enabled scientists to move freely from the east to the west , from north to south within the nomadic communitie s as well in cities without any difference among them..
After the decline of Greece and Rome, mathematics flourished for hundreds of years in India and the Islamic world. Mathematics in India was largely a tool for astronomy, yet Indian mathematicians discovered a number of important concepts. Their mathematical masterpieces and those of the Greeks were translated into Arabic in centers of Islamic learning, where mathematical discoveries continued during the period known in the West as the Middle Ages. Our present numeration system, for example, is known as the Hindu-Arabic system.

In the 5th century Hindu mathematician and astronomer Arya hata studied many of the same problems as Diaphanous but went beyond the Greek mathematician in his use of fractions as opposed to whole numbers to solve indeterminate equations (equations that have no unique solutions). Aryabhata also figured the value of pi accurately to eight places, thus coming closer to its value than any other mathematician of ancient times. In astronomy, he proposed that Earth orbited the sun and correctly explained eclipses of the Sun and Moon.
Also the earliest known use of negative numbers in mathematics was by Hindu mathematician Brahmagupta about AD 630. He presented rules for them in terms of fortunes (positive numbers)and debts (negative numbers). Brahmagupta‟s understanding of numbers exceeded that of other mathematicians of the time, and he made full use of the place system in his method of multiplication. Brahmagupta headed the leading astronomical observatory in India and wrote two works on mathematics and astronomy. The works dealt with topics such as eclipses, rising sand settings, and conjunctions of the planets with each other and with fixed stars.
Writing in the 9th century, Jain mathematician Mahavira stated rules for operations with zero ,although he thought that division by zero left a number unchanged. The best-known Indian mathematician of the early period was Bhaskara, who lived in the 12th century. Bhaskara supplied the correct answer for division by zero as well as rules for operating with irrational numbers .Bhaskara wrote six books on mathematics ,including Lilavati (The Beautiful), which summarized mathematical knowledge in India up to his time, and Karanakutuhala, translated as “Calculation of Astronomical Wonders.”
The use in Religion mathematics in the Islamic world proved useful for religion. For example, it helped in dividing inheritances according to Islamic law and in determining the direction of the holy city of Mecca for the orientation of mosques and daily prayers. Muslims deliver prayers facing in the direction of Mecca, and a prayerniche on one wall of a mosque indicates the direction of Mecca

Indian mathematics reached Baghdad, a major early center of Islam, about AD 800. Supported by the ruling caliphs and wealthy individuals, translators in Baghdad produced Arabic versions of Greek and Indian mathematical works. The need for translations was stimulated by mathematical research in the Islamic world. Islamic mathematics also served religion in that it proved useful in dividing inheritances according to Islamic law; in predicting the time of the new moon, when the next month began; and in determining the direction to Mecca for the orientation of mosques and of daily prayers, which were delivered facing Mecca.•
1. 8. In the 9th century Arab mathematician al- Khwārizmī wrote a systematic introduction to algebra, Kitab al-jabr w’al Muqabalah (Book of Restoring and Balancing). The English word algebra comes from al-jabr in the treatise‟s title. Al-Khwārizmī‟s algebra was founded on Brahmagupta‟s work, which he duly credited, and showed the influence of Babylonian and Greek mathematics as well. A 12th-century Latin translation of al-Khwārizmī‟s treatise was crucial for the later development of algebra in Europe. Al-Khwārizmī‟s name is the source of the word algorithm.
2. By the year 900 the acquisition of past mathematics was complete, and Muslim scholars began to build on what they had acquired. Alhazen, an outstanding Arab scientist of the late 900s and early 1000s, produced algebraic solutions of quadratic and cubic equations. Al-Karaji in the 10th and early 11th century completed the algebra of polynomials (mathematical expressions that are the sum of a number of terms) of al-Khwārizmī. He included polynomials with an infinite number of terms.
Many of the ancient Greek works on mathematics were preserved during the Middle Ages through Arabic translations and commentaries. Europe acquired much of this learning during the 12th century, when Greek and Arabic works were translated into Latin, then the written language of educated Europeans. These Arabic works, together with the Greek classics, were responsible for the growth of mathematics in the West during the late Middle Ages.
3. Al-Khwarizmi- perfected the astrolabe- an astronomical instrument for charting the heaven and calculating the position at sea. Below is an illustration of astrolabe., Albumayar- studied the relation of tides to the moon., In astronomy, Arab observers charted the heavens, giving many of the brightest stars the names we use today, such as Aldebaran, Altair, and Deneb. Moslem astronomers measured the length of a terrestrial degree and determined the Earth‟s circumference.
4. CHEMISTRY : Arab scientists also explored chemistry ,developing methods to manufacture metallic alloys and test the quality and purity of metals .As in mathematics and astronomy, Arab chemists left their mark in some of the names they used—alkali and alchemy, for example, are both words of Arabic origin.
5. Another truth which is present and has its influence that Arab scientists also contributed in developing physics. One of the most famous Egyptian physicists ,Al hazen, who published a book which dealt with the principles of lenses, mirrors, and other devices used in optics. In this work, he rejected the then-popular idea that eyes give out light rays. Instead, “he correctly deduced that eyes work when light ray center the eye from outside”. He disproved the Alexandrian theory that vision is accomplished by the eye emitting rays .Al- Kindi- studied and wrote on meteorology and mechanics as well as optics
Islamic culture and civilization made great use of old traditions in the field of art and architectury depending on two sources of tradition :
a. Western Tradition
b. Eastern Traditions a. Western tradition: In particular, the regions of the newly conquered Byzantine Empire (Southwestern Anatolia, Syria, Egypt and the Maghrib supplied architects, masons, mosaicists and other craftsmen to the new Islamic rulers. These artisans were trained in Byzantine architecture and decorative arts, and continued building and decorating in Byzantine style, which had developed out of Hellenistic and ancient Roman architecture
b . Eastern tradition: Mesopotamia and Persia, despite adopting elements of Hellenistic and Roman representative style, retained their independent architectural traditions, which derived from Sasanian architecture and its predecessors.
The transition process between late Antiquity, or post-classical, and Islamic architecture is exemplified by archaeologic findings in North Syria and Palestine, the Bilad al-Sham of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. In this region, late antique, or Christian, architectural traditions merged with the pre-Islamic Arabian heritage of the conquerors. Recent research on the history of Islamic art and architecture has revised a number of colonialistic ideas .
Compared to earlier research, the assimilation and transformation of pre-existing architectural traditions is investigated under the aspect of mutual intra- and intercultural exchange of ideas, technologies and styles as well as artists, architects, and materials. In the area of art and architecture, the Rise of Islam is seen as a continuous transformation process leading from late Antiquity to the Islamic period. Early research into the area regarded the early Islamic architecture merely as a break with the past, from which apparently rose a distorted and less expressive form of art, or a degenerate imitation of the post-classical architectural forms. Modern concepts tend to regard the transition between the cultures rather as a selective process of informed appropriation and transformation. The Umayyads played a crucial role in this process of transforming and thereby enriching the existing architectural traditions, or, in a more general sense, of the visual culture of the nascent Islamic society .
Umayyad period buildings show a mixture of ancient Roman and Persian architectural traditions. Diaphragm arches with lintelled ceilings made of wood or stone beams, or, alternatively, with barrel vaults, were known in the Levant since the classical and Nabatean period. They were mainly used to cover houses and cisterns. The architectural form of covering diaphragm arches with barrel vaults, however, was likely newly introduced from Iranian architecture, as similar vaulting was not known in Bilad al-Sham before the arrival of the Umayyads. However, this form was well known in Iran from early Parthian times, as exemplified in the Parthian buildings of Aššur. The earliest known example for barrel vaults resting on diaphragm arches from Umayyad architecture is known from Qasr Harane in Syria. During the early period, the diaphragm arches are built from. Umayyad-period vaults of this type were found in Amman Citadel and in Qasr Amra.
The double-arched system of arcades of the Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba is generally considered to be derived from Roman aqueducts like the nearby aqueduct of Los Milagros. Columns are connected by horseshoe arches, and support pillars of brickwork, which are in turn interconnected by semicircular arches supporting the flat timberwork ceiling.
In later-period additions to the Mosque of Córdoba, the basic architectural design was changed: Horseshoe arches were now used for the upper row of arcades, which is now supported by five-pass arches. In sections which now supported domes, additional supporting structures were needed to bear the thrust of the cupolas. The architects solved this problem by the construction of intersecting three- or five-pass arches. The three domes spanning the vaults above the mihrab wall are constructed as ribbed vaults. Rather than meeting in the center of the dome, the ribs intersect one another off-center, forming an eight-pointed star in the center which is superseded by a pendentive dome.[35]
The ribbed vaults of the mosque-cathedral of Córdoba served as models for later mosque buildings in the Islamic West of al-Andaluz and the Maghreb. At around 1000 AD, the Mezquita de Bab al Mardum (today: Mosque of Cristo de la Luz) in Toledo was constructed with a similar, eight-ribbed dome.
Because of its long history of building and re-building, spanning the time from the Abbasids to the Qajar dynasty, and its excellent state of conservation, the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan provides an overview over the experiments Islamic architects conducted with complicated vaulting structures
The system of squinches, which is a construction filling in the upper angles of a square room so as to form a base to receive an octagonal or spherical dome, was already known in Sasanian architecture. The spherical triangles of the squinches were split up into further subdivisions or systems of niches, resulting in a complex interplay of supporting structures forming an ornamental spatial pattern which hides the weight of the structure.
The "non-radial rib vault", an architectural form of ribbed vaults with a superimposed spherical dome, is the characteristic architectural vault form of the Islamic East. From its beginnings in the Jameh Mosque of Isfahan, this form of vault was used in a sequence of important buildings up to the period of Safavid architecture. Its main characteristics are:
1. Four intersecting ribs, at times redoubled and intersected to form an eight-pointed star;
2. the omission of a transition zone between the vault and the supporting structure;
3. a central dome or roof lantern on top of the ribbed vault.
While intersecting pairs of ribs from the main decorative feature of Seljuk architecture, the ribs were hidden behind additional architectural elements in later periods, as exemplified in the dome of the Tomb of Ahmed Sanjar in Merv, until they finally disappeared completely behind the double shell of a stucco dome, as seen in the dome of Ālī Qāpū in Isfaha

Mimar Sinan.
When the Ottomans had conquered Constantinople, they found a variety of Byzantine Christian churches, the largest and most prominent amongst them was the Hagia Sophia. The brickwork-and-mortar ribs and the spherical shell of the central dome of the Hagia Sophia were built simultaneously, as a self-supporting structure without any wooden centring . In the early Byzantine church of Hagia Irene, the ribs of the dome vault are fully integrated into the shell, similar to Western Roman domes, and thus are not visible from within the building . In the dome of the Hagia Sophia, the ribs and shell of the dome unite in a central medallion at the apex of the dome, the upper ends of the ribs being integrated into the shell: Shell and ribs form one single structural entity. In later Byzantine buildings, like the Kalenderhane Mosque, the Eski Imaret Mosque (formerly the Monastery of Christ Pantepoptes) or the Pantokrator Monastery (today: Zeyrek Mosque), the central medallion of the apex and the ribs of the dome became separate structural elements.
Conclusion :
Islamic culture played an important and undeniable role in advancing world civilization. Muslims carried the civilization torch during the dark ages. preserved the advanced the treasure of culture and knowledge for humanity. In all aspects of your daily lives, then – in our homes, offices and universities; in religion, philosophy, science and arts – all of the world is indebted to the Muslim creativity, insight and scientific perseverance.

Ghada Saleh Qwaider

Give me your magic eyes
let me without wings fly
  رد مع اقتباس
قديم 13-12-2018, 03:30 AM رقم المشاركة : 2
معلومات العضو
غادة قويدر
عضو أكاديمية الفينيق
عضو تجمع أدباء الرسالة
تحمل وسام الاكاديمية للابداع الادبي
رابطة الفينيق/ ارام

الصورة الرمزية غادة قويدر

افتراضي رد: by G Islam 's contribution in the enlightenment of Europe

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let me without wings fly
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